S2-D is a computer progamme that helps researchers to reproduce, evaluate and visualise Schwartz’s 2-dimensional
value space using empirical data in a Goodness-of-Fit test procedure. The automation of this procedure almost
completely replaces the manual methods used previously by researchers working with Schwartz’s 2-dimensional model
and performing confirmatory Smallest Space Analysis (SSA).

SSA is a specific multi-dimensional scaling technique that plots variables as points on a multi-dimensional
spatial map and into the smallest possible geometric space. The points or co-ordinates are located on the spatial
map according to the similarity of the coefficients (e.g. Pearson Correlation Coefficients) among the variables:
closely related variables are plotted close together and dissimilar variables further apart.

S2-D is faster, more accurate and standardises the Goodness-of-Fit test procedure in reproducing Schwartz’s
two-dimensional model based on SSA.

How to improve your 2D-Configuration

If you have more than 11 moves, rotate Sectors

Check each sector-border by moving it to the right and left

Points to Move:

GoF1:

GoF2:

Contraction

Pointname

UN_1

Universalism Point 1

UN_2

Universalism Point 2

UN_3

Universalism Point 3

BE_1

Benevolence Point 1

BE_2

Benevolence Point 2

CO_1

Conformity Point 1

CO_2

Conformity Point 2

TR_1

Tradition Point 1

TR_2

Tradition Point 2

SE_1

Security Point 1

SE_2

Security Point 2

PO_1

Power Point 1

PO_2

Power Point 2

AC_1

Achievment Point 1

AC_2

Achievment Point 2

HE_1

Hedonism Point 1

HE_2

Hedonism Point 2

ST_1

Stimulation Point 1

ST_2

Stimulation Point 2

SD_1

Self-Direction Point 1

SD_2

Self-Direction Point 2

Schwartz’s Theory of Basic Values and 2-dimensional model

In a nutshell Schwartz’s (2012) Theory of Basic Values identifies ten distinct value orientations and four value domains.

Figure 1 shows how Schwartz organises the structure of his theory as a two-dimensional model.

The relations between Schwartz’s value types are best represented as a circle.

Compatible values are closer to each other and conflicting values are further apart.

Based on this model, the value orientations of individuals are measured using the Portrait Value Questionnaire
(PVQ), which contains 21 items and each item consists of two statements.

In the PVQ there are two items for each of nine values and the 10th value, which is Universalism, is measured
using three items in the questionnaire.

Check each sector-border by moving it to the right and left.

Step 4: Data Preview

The point coordinates are displayed.

Step 5: Preview Results

Points to move, GoF1, GoF2, Visualisation and Table with Steps
can be viewed and downloaded as PDF.

Step 6: Save

Current settings, visualisation as PNG and a final report as HTML or PDF can be downloaded.

How to prepare the Excel Template:

Download the Template Excel File by clicking on "Download Template.xlsx".

Open the downloaded file.

Put your MDS-Coordinates into the yellow area!

You can insert your x- and y- coordinates with comma or decimal point.

The order of the points (=items) is important - please insert the data in the order in which they appear in the Template. (SD_1m, PO_1m, Un_1m, ..., HE_2m)

After inserting the coordinates, save the file and upload it on the website.